• The Challenge EM Simulation

    The Challenge EM Simulation

    Are you faced with such tasks: Are innovations permanently required? Measurements and experiments are not satisfactory? Is the Physics Complex? Time is short? Then we are here for you! On these pages we demonstrate MAGNETICS, an outstanding electromagnetic FE solver product that we develop for you. MAGNETICS, integrated in NX / Simcenter or as standalone, well known as NX Magnetics, is a comprehensive FEM software package to simulate and optimize electromagnetic devices. It is used by industry and science and either Read More
  • Circuit Breakers

    Circuit Breakers

    Outstanding Features for the coupling of electromagnetic, elasticity, motion and thermal allow realistic simulations of circuit breakers and switchgears. The animation demonstrates the FEM simulation of a low-voltage circuit breaker. A voltage is applied to a coil (below), whereupon the plunger is pulled into the coil. The four contact bridges (above) are connected to the plunger and then press on their contact partners, whereupon the AC current flows through the lines. The Lorenz forces lead to small mechanical vibrations with Read More
  • High-Frequency


    Thanks to the capability of a full wave solver, the analysis of antennas, waveguides or microwave ovens is another application area for electromagnetic simulation with Magnetics for NX/Simcenter. The picture shows as an general example the model of a microstrip patch antenna and its electric field result. Such antennas are becoming increasingly useful because they can be printed directly onto a circuit board. They are becoming very widespread within the mobile phone market. Patch antennas are low cost, have a Read More
  • Individual Motor Designs

    Individual Motor Designs

    The application to simulate is a linear motor to be used in a future magnetic levitation railway. We publish this with kindly permission by HARDT GLOBAL MOBILITY. Download as PDF Read More
  • Transformers


    This example deals with a three phase medium power transformer. Goal is to find the main characteristics e.g. power and efficiency under normal operating conditions. Download as PDF Read More
  • Lightning Strikes

    Lightning Strikes

    Lightning strikes that occur in wind turbine towers can be analyzed to help for dimensioning of arrestors and to estimate the electric and magnetic field strengths that appear.This example shows how this kind of analysis can be done in Magnetics for NX/Simcenter. The tower is made of steel bars that conduct the lightning current down into the ground. Inside is a cable with an resistor in which we want to analyze the specific energy. Download as PDF Download NX Files Read More
  • EMC, Electromagnetic Compatiblity

    EMC, Electromagnetic Compatiblity

    This example shows a FEM analysis of a Circuit Breaker that is placed in a carbon fiber box. Induced eddy currents and the shielding effect are investigated. Download as PDF     Download NX Files Video Read More
  • Customer Presentations

    Customer Presentations

    Following we demonstrate some presentations or papers published by industrial users and ourselves. Optimierung eines PMSM Motors bezüglich Drehmoment und Ripple mit NX Magnetics und HEEDS. Presentation of Peter Binde at 2022 PLM Connection. Electrostatic discharge simulation using a GPU-accelerated DGTD solver targeting modern graphics hardware. COMPUMAG 2021. Jan. 16-20, 2022, Cancun, Mexico conference paper, Matteo Cicuttin, Anthony Royer, Peter Binde and Christophe Geuzaine.We discuss an implementation on recent GPU hardware of the Time Domain Discontinuous Galerkin method for the Read More
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20 GHz Waveguide Combiner

This waveguide is used to combine the output of two SSPA amplifiers. The interaction between electromagnetic waves with the geometry is studied. An optimal design can be found.

Download as PDF

Initial Situation

Study Impact of Wave Interactions

The waveguide to be analyzed in this example is a WR42 standard model with a four port combining junction. It is used to combine the output power of two 20 GHz solid state power amplifiers (SSPA). The outputs of the two amplifiers are fed into ports 2 and 4 with a 90° out of phase separation to steer the output power of the SSPAs to port 1. Port 3 of the waveguide is the isolated port where the impedance mismatch at the output port 1 is absorbed. The waveguide is of aluminum boundary.

Goal is to find the electromagnetic wave pattern under the given conditions and to investigate the effect of wave absorption/interaction.

Picture: Waveguide CombinerPicture: Waveguide Combiner

This problem is also described and analyzed in these two documents:

Arcioni, Paolo, Perregrini, Luca, Bonecchi, Fulvio, “Low-Loss Waveguide Combiners for Multidevice Power Amplifiers,” The Second International Conference on Electromagnetics in Aerospace Applications, September 1991.

Getting Started with HFSS: A 20 GHz Waveguide Combiner


Appropriate Method

3D Full Wave Frequency Solution

Because the wavelength at 20 GHz is about the size of the geometry it is necessary to solve the full set of Maxwell equations without simplifications as it is performed by the NX Magnetics solution-type Full Wave. The solution can be solved in the time- or frequency domain. While solving in frequency domain will result in the pattern of the fully established waves the time domain solution would allow investigating the starting conditions and the detailed behavior of the oscillating field. The solver can do both and it is a good idea to compare the results of them. Following we use the frequency domain solution.

Creation of the FEM model in NX is quite simple: The inside geometry is hex-meshed and the material Air is assigned to it.

Picture: Mesh for the Waveguide CombinerPicture: Mesh for the Waveguide Combiner

Next step is the definition of the two incoming wave ports in the NX simulation file. For this some parameters have to be defined to describe the wave patterns on the faces. Next picture shows the resulting electric fields on the two incoming ports and the phase shift.

Picture: Incoming Port Definition. The right Port is 90° shiftedPicture: Incoming Port Definition. The right Port is 90° shifted

At the boundary faces of the waveguide we apply an impedance-condition Finite-Conductivity-Boundarythat allows modeling the outside walls having properties of aluminum.

Picture: Dialog for the Definition of the Boundary MaterialPicture: Dialog for the Definition of the Boundary Material



Wave Field Pattern, Absorbtion

Some of the results are the real and imaginary part of electric and magnetic field patterns. These fields allow detailed investigation and understanding of the wave interaction in the given geometry. Of course the parametric NX model allows fast and easy design changes and simulation updates.

Picture: Real Part of the Electric Field in the WaveguidePicture: Real Part of the Electric Field in the Waveguide

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