# Coupled Thermal

The Coupled Thermal solution describes the distribution of temperature fields due to losses from electromagnetic solutions or due to applied thermal loads.

## Features

- 3D coupling with several other solution types
- Transient or Static.
- Coupling with frequency domain electromagnetic solutions. E.g. for AC heating over time.
- Temperature dependent material properties.
- Thermal Coupling - Interface Resistance
- Outputs Plot
- Temperature, Temperature Gradient, Temperature Conductive Flux

- Outputs Table
- Temperature Maximum, Temperature Minimum

## Examples

HV Transformer | ||

## Theory and Basics

### Formulations

The basis equations:

(1) (lambda grad T, grad T)_{Ω}

+ Dt (Rho Cp grad T, T)_{Ω}

- (0.5 sigma (-Dt a - grad v), T)_{ΩC} (freq. domain)

- (HeatFlux, T)_{Ωs1}

- ((ConvCoeff - AmbiTemp), T)_{Ωs2}

= 0

lambda: thermal conductivity, Rho: density, Cp: thermal capacitance, sigma: electric conductivity, Heatflux: applied heat, ConvCoeff: thermal convection coefficient, AmbiTemp: ambient temperature.